Data and Information Scope.
The words data and information are usually used interchangeably as both can be facts, knowledge, learned about an object, person or place.
Data is any information for computer processing, e.g. Numbers, texts, images and sounds in a form that are suitable for storage in or processing by a computer. Data is a collection of facts, such as values or measurement. Data refers to a facts, events, activities and transactions which have been recorded. Data is a raw material from which information. A raw facts given to the computer is also called a data.
Examples of data:
- Student data in admission form( name, father’s name, age, address and so on).
- Data of citizens during census.
- Survey data to know the opinion about products.
- Students examinations data such as CA and Exam marks of different subjects for all students that are collected.
Information is an organised computer data, it’s a meaningful material derived from computer data by organising it and interpreting it in a specific way. Information means processed data. Information is a data which has been processed in such a way as to be meaningful and useful to the person who receives it.
Examples of information:
- Census report.
- Survey reports and results.
- Results card of individual students.
Characteristics of Information.
- Timely: Information should be available when required.
- Accuracy: Information should be accurate.
- Completeness: Information should be completed.
Main differences between Data and Information.
- Data is the lowest level of knowledge, it refers to the lowest abstract or a raw input which when processed or arranged makes a meaningful output, while Information is the second level, i.e. the processed outcome of data.
- Data alone is not significant, while Information is significant by itself.
- Data is an unprocessed information, while Information is processed data.
- Data does not depend on information, while Information depend on data.
- Data is not specific, while Information is specific.
- Data is an input, while Information is an output.
- Observation and recordings are done to obtain Data, such as symbols, characters, images or numbers, while analysis is done to obtain Information (outcome of processed data).